Vitamin D


Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with Vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxy Vitamin D (25(OH)D).

The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH)D concentration and pre-eclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory.  This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of pre-eclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with pre-eclampsia. However, both 25(OH)D in T3 and change in 25(OH)D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with pre-eclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH)D concentration of >30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22(p = 0.002) for pre-eclampsia.


T1 25(OH)D was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses.

There was no association between 25(OH)D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH)D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of Vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for pre-eclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.


July 2015 – Vitamin D Council

A new study published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition has discovered that Vitamin D status is a modifiable risk factor for miscarriage.

Miscarriages occur in about 12-20% of pregnancies, making it the most common adverse outcome of pregnancy. Vitamin D supplementation has been shown to reduce the risk of pregnancy complications, such as pre-eclampsia and gestational diabetes.

Researchers recently hypothesized that Vitamin D status may also affect the risk of miscarriage. In order to test this hypothesis, the researchers measured the Vitamin D levels of 1,683 pregnant women before gestational week 22.

They found that Vitamin D levels less than 20 ng/ml were associated with over two times the risk for miscarriage during the first trimester in comparison to levels greater than or equal to 20 ng/ml. Vitamin D levels were not associated with an increased risk of miscarriage during the second-trimester.


May 2015 – Vitamin D Council

A recent study led by Dr. Luisella Vigna of the University of Milan found that Vitamin D supplementation resulted in weight loss in obese and overweight people who are Vitamin D deficient. Prior research has found that low Vitamin D levels are associated with obesity. However, whether Vitamin D supplementation leads to weight loss has not been thoroughly investigated. Vigna and colleagues conducted a study to provide insight on Vitamin D’s role in weight loss.

They recruited 400 obese or overweight adults and divided them into three groups: Those who did not take supplements, those who took 25,000 IU of Vitamin D per month and those who took 100,000 IU of Vitamin D per month. All participants were put on the same low-calorie diet. After six months, only those who took 100,000 IU per month achieved sufficient Vitamin D status. Both groups who supplemented with Vitamin D experienced a significantly greater weight decrease and reduction in waist circumference compared to the group who did not supplement.

Those who supplemented with 25,000 IU lost an average of 8.4 pounds, while those who supplemented with 100,000 IU lost an average of 11.9 pounds. The participants who did not supplement with Vitamin D lost an average of 2.6 pounds.



Those who took 25,000 IU lost an average of 4.00 cm from their waist, those who took 100,000 IU lost an average of 5.48 cm from their waist and those who did not supplement lost 3.21 cm.

The researchers concluded:

“The present data indicates that in obese and overweight people with Vitamin D deficiency, Vitamin D supplementation aids weight loss and enhances the beneficial effects of a reduced-calorie diet.”

The researchers continued:

“All people affected by obesity should have their levels of Vitamin D tested to see if they are deficient, and if so, begin taking supplements.”